The heart is a muscular organ that pumps oxygen-rich blood, which is carried by arteries to different parts of the body. It is composed of four chambers called right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle. The atria are the two upper chambers of the heart, whereas the ventricles are lower chambers of the heart. Heart valves are present between the right atrium and right ventricle, and left atrium and left ventricle. These prevent the backflow of blood. The heart receives its own supply of blood from the coronary arteries. If the heart doesn't receive sufficient amount of blood, or it is unable to pump blood, it could have an adverse effect on one's health. Heart conditions can adversely affect the quality of life of an individual. At times, these conditions could turn out be life-threatening. Poor dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol, etc., are some of the contributing factors behind the increase in the incidence of heart diseases. The following sections provides a list of some common and rare heart conditions.

Types of Heart Conditions

Medical conditions of the heart can be categorized according to the part of the organ that is affected.

Heart Chambers
Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart muscle is unable to pump sufficient amount of blood. It could occur due to a systolic or diastolic dysfunction.

Heart Muscle
When the heart muscle (myocardium) becomes inflamed, one is diagnosed with myocarditis. The deterioration in the ability of the heart muscle to contract is referred to as cardiomyopathy. The different types of cardiomyopathies include:

Restrictive cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Dilated cardiomyopathy

Heart Valves
There are a number of problems that could develop due to a defect in the functioning of the heart valves. These include:

Mitral stenosis
Mitral valve regurgitation
Mitral valve prolapse
Aortic stenosis
Tricuspid regurgitation
Tricuspid stenosis

Arteries and Veins
Heart diseases or disorders that are caused due to hardening or blockage of the arteries are listed below.

Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
Coronary artery disease/Ischemic heart disease
Atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries that affects the blood supply to the heart)

Electrical Conduction
Conditions that develop due to problems in the electrical system of the heart are known as arrhythmias. These arrhythmias mostly cause tachycardia (abnormally rapid heartbeat). The different types of arrhythmias include:

Sinus tachycardia
Sinus bradycardia
Atrial fibrillation
AV block
Premature atrial contractions (PAC)
Atrial flutter
Supraventricular tachycardia
Multifocal atrial tachycardia

Heart Lining
The membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms a part of the heart valves is known as endocardium, whereas the serous double membrane surrounding the heart is called pericardium. These could get inflamed, giving rise to conditions called:


Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital heart disease is a heart condition that an individual is born with, due to certain genetic defects or alterations. Congenital heart disease may affect any part or function of this organ. It is categorized separately only because the causative factor for this disorder is genetic or inborn. These include:

Obstruction defects
Septal defects
Cyanotic defects

Each of the aforementioned defects could adversely affect the heart function.

Rare Heart Conditions

A list of rare heart diseases is given below:

Atrial Myxoma
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Long QT Syndrome
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
Supraventricular tachycardia
Atrial flutter

Unless congenital, maintaining a healthy and strong heart is completely in your hands. Following a balanced diet that maintains the cholesterol in the reference range, and exercising regularly would lower the risk for heart conditions, as well as other medical conditions.