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Glucose is the key substance that ensures proper functioning of the body. The carbohydrates that we consume are converted into sugar and then utilized during the process of metabolism. Insulin is one of the hormones which plays a crucial role during this process. When we consume excessive carbohydrates, the body fails to convert it into sugar. This leads to the infiltration of glucose into the blood stream, and therefore it is called blood glucose.

Glucose Levels
Several tests that determine the level of blood glucose include random blood sugar test, fasting blood glucose test, oral glucose tolerance test, and glycohemoglobin A1c. Frequent measurements and maintenance of a journal of blood sugar levels is recommended for diabetics. Ideally, a diabetic can monitor the blood sugar levels four times a day or at least twice a day (before meal and before bedtime). According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the following table describes the recommended blood glucose range for diabetics:

Time of TestTarget Blood Glucose
Before meals70-130 mg/dL
1-2 hours after a mealLess than 180mg/dL
Every 3 months A1cLess than 7%

Glycohemoglobin A1c Test
Glycohemoglobin A1c is a blood test that determines the amount of sugar attached to the hemoglobin. The results of the test correlate with the recent reports of the blood glucose levels of that person. For instance, if the level of blood sugar has been on the higher side for the past few months, then the test result will also be higher. Hence, a periodical monitoring of glycohemoglobin A1c is found extremely effective for the observation of overall development of the patient. Type 1 diabetics are recommended to get this test done once in every 3 to 4 months, while type 2 diabetics can get it done once a year. The result is shown as a percentage, and it can be used to calculate your estimated average blood sugar level (eAG), using the formula: eAG=28.7 X A1C - 46.7

According to glycohemoglobin A1c test, the following table depicts the blood sugar values for adults:

Glycohemoglobin A1c for Adults
NormalLess than 5.7% (117 mg/dl eAG)
Prediabetes5.7%-6.4% (117 mg/dl eAG-137 mg/dl eAG)
Diabetes6.5% (140 mg/dl eAG) and higher

For adult diabetics, an A1c level of less than 7% is recommended by the ADA.

According to glycohemoglobin A1c test, the following table depicts the blood sugar values for children:

Glycohemoglobin A1c for Children
AgeA1c %
Less than 6 years oldLess than 8.5%
6-12 years oldLess than 8%
13-19 years oldLess than 7.5%

If the A1c level is higher than the level in the aforementioned table, it indicates that your diabetes has not been controlled properly over the last 2 to 3 months.

The following table describes the relationship between A1c and eAG:

A1c %eAG mg/dl
6%126
7%154
8%183
9%212
10%240
11%269
12%298

Diabetics should regularly check their blood glucose levels so that the condition does not worsen and give rise to serious health conditions.

Disclaimer: This Buzzle article is for informative purposes only, and should not be used as a replacement for expert medical advice.