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Something Important
Treat healthy diet and exercise like going to the office everyday. After all, you got to survive, beat diabetes and not vice-versa.

Diabetes mellitus is a medical term for diabetes that is typically marked by too much sugar in the blood. As we all know, the job of maintaining blood sugar in the normal range is assigned to insulin. This is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that works in different ways to regulate sugar in the blood. When the pancreas show its inability to release sufficient insulin, sugar levels become abnormally high and the condition is referred as diabetes mellitus type 1. In diabetes mellitus type 2, there is adequate insulin but the body does not respond to the actions of insulin.

How to Treat Diabetes Mellitus

The primary aim of treatment is to keep blood sugar close to normal and prevent blood sugar from escalating into the 'danger' (life-threatening) zone. It is discussed below:

Healthy Diet
Keeping an eye on the diet is crucial to manage diabetes in the right way. Shunning away from sugary foods like cakes, pastries and bakery products is a prerequisite to manage diabetes. Eating fruits and vegetables everyday can go a long way in keeping health in optimal condition. Also, simple carbohydrates transform into sugar at a faster rate than complex carbohydrates. Some of the good sources of complex carbohydrates that can be included in the diet are whole wheat bread, brown rice, oats and barley.

Important Tip!
Amongst fruits, you need to include jamun (syzygium cumin) in your diet as its displays anti-diabetic properties. Intake of jamuns daily will ensure better control over blood sugar levels. Extracts made from jamun seeds and leaves of the tree may also help in controlling diabetes.

The focus should be more on eating green vegetables (in the form of salads) and less on fatty foods like poultry products and red meat. Too much fat in the diet can make the body cells more resistant towards insulin activity, which can aggravate diabetes. When preparing meals avoid frying and prefer healthy cooking options such as steaming, boiling and grilling.

Dietary Tip!
As far as vegetables are concerned, patients should not particularly miss eating asparagus. One study reported in the British Journal of Nutrition indicates that daily consumption of asparagus can be effective in managing diabetes effectively. Asparagus appears to increase secretion of insulin as well as reduce insulin resistance, which works to control blood sugar.

Fenugreek Seeds
Fenugreek seeds display anti-diabetic properties as found out through several clinical studies. It is found to be beneficial in reducing blood sugar levels in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Add a spoonful of fenugreek seeds in a glass of water and let it remain overnight. In the morning, have the water along with the fenugreek seeds. Practice this daily to keep your blood sugar levels under control. Fenugreek seeds inhibit absorption of sugar as well as increase the production of insulin, which assists to keep blood sugar in check.

Exercise
It is said that diabetes has a negative impact on quality of life. Well, this might be true for those patients who prefer a sedentary lifestyle. With no or little exercise, sooner or later diabetes is bound to raise its 'ugly head'. It is observed that in order to carry out any physical activity, the body requires energy which it derives from sugar. Thus, through exercises like walking and cycling everyday for 30-40 minutes, one can burn sugar briskly, in turn helping to control diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes is Reversible!
Yes, you can reverse type 2 diabetes, if you follow a healthy nutritious diet and exercise everyday. Type 2 diabetes prevalent in obese patients has often been attributed to poor diet (too much intake of fatty foods) and physical inactivity. This couch potato lifestyle makes people overweight, a primary contributory factor in the development of insulin resistance. So, if you want your body to respond to insulin, you go to lose those 'piled up' pounds, which is possible only by doing cardio workouts like fast paced walking (no strolling) and swimming for at least half an hour daily and as far as diet is concerned, focus more on eating raw food (vegetable salads) and ditch unhealthy cooking methods like frying. These lifestyle modifications help to improve efficiency of insulin in driving away sugar into the cells, and this may eventually reverse type 2 diabetes, and you may no longer be required to take the medicines. As far as type 1 diabetes (insulin insufficiency) is concerned, it is a lifelong condition and cannot be reversed.

Insulin Therapy
People affected with type 1 diabetes (insulin deficiency) are given insulin through injections. Basically, this therapy helps to increase insulin levels, necessary to regulate blood sugar. The number of injections per day will depend on how severe the diabetes is.

Oral Diabetes Medicines
For type 2 diabetes, oral medications that make the body more receptive to insulin, are prescribed. In some cases, the patient is advised to take insulin injections along with oral medications to control blood sugar effectively.

Ileal Transposition Surgery
People with severe cases of type 2 diabetes that do not respond to conventional treatment may get relief by surgical intervention. The surgical procedure, referred to as ileal transposition involves cutting the final section of the small intestine (ileum) and placing it in between the second portion of the small intestine. To put it simply, the small intestine is rearranged so as to move the ileum near the stomach. This slight modification in the structure of digestive system helps to improve the production of gastrointestinal hormone, GLP-1. This causes an increase in the number of insulin-secreting cells followed by an improvement in insulin sensitivity. All this contributes in normalizing blood sugar levels. Patients with a healthy weight are ideal to undergo ileal transposition and can even discontinue the medicine after surgery.

Gastric Bypass Surgery
Overweight patients suffering from severe form of type 2 diabetes may be advised for gastric bypass surgery. The main purpose of this surgery is to reduce the weight of the patient, which in turns helps to control diabetes. The procedure involves decreasing the size of the stomach and the length of the small intestine. The duodenum - the first part of the intestine - is either removed or simply separated from the stomach. The smaller stomach that can store only an ounce of food is then stitched directly to the second portion of the small intestine (jejunum). Food intake after surgery automatically reduces due to the diminished stomach size. In other words, the feeling of fullness during meals strikes early, thereby decreasing the total calorie intake. No wonder, the patient notices a substantial amount of weight loss within 2-3 months after surgery.

Blood Tests
Patients are often advised to undergo the A1C test from time to time that gives a clear idea about the average blood sugar levels for a specific duration. Usually, the average is calculated after measuring blood sugar levels of the last 2 months. This test clearly indicates whether the treatment plan currently adopted is effective to control diabetes or not. However, with the advent of glucometers, it is not necessary to go to a doctor's clinic to know blood sugar levels. You can easily check your blood sugar anytime you want at home by using these valuable devices.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is solely for educating the reader. It is not intended to be a substitute for the advice of a medical expert.