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Different types of vitamins and minerals enable healthy body function. They help in repairing damaged cells and tissues, in the production of important cells, in healthy brain function, and a host of other functions required for normal health and well-being. While vitamins are organic, minerals are inorganic. This means, the former are made by plants and animals, while the latter are found in the soil and water, which are then absorbed by plants and animals. A comprehensive vitamins and minerals chart is provided in the paragraphs below for you to understand the importance of these nutrients.

A Chart of Essential Vitamins and Minerals

The chart given here not only enlists the important vitamins and minerals required for your overall well-being, but also describes their functions, their sources, and the recommended daily intake for men, women, and kids. The references for the units are:
  • mg = milligrams
  • mcg = micrograms
  • IU = International Units
Vitamins Chart

Vitamins Health Benefits Vitamin Source Recommended Daily Intake
Vitamin A Useful for healthy eyes. Also benefits hair and skin. Strengthens the immune system. Helps in maintaining mucous membranes. Carrots, Pumpkin, Spinach, Chillies, Sweet Potato, Mangoes, Dairy, Liver Men: 750 mg
Women: 750 mg
Kids: 1000 IU (2 - 3 yrs) to 2000 IU (9 - 13 yrs)
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Helps the body make optimum use of carbohydrates. Aids proper heart function, the nervous system, and enables good coordination of muscles. Whole Grain Products, Sunflower Seeds, Oatmeal, Pine Nuts, Other Nuts, Lean Pork and other Meat forms, Wheat Germ Men: 1.18 mg
Women:0.85 mg
Kids: 500 mcg (1 - 3 yrs) to 900 mcg (9 - 13 yrs)
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Also beneficial for eyes, and healthy growth of hair, nails and skin. Fortified Breakfast Cereals, Eggs, Milk, Almonds Men: 1.75 mg
Women: 1.27 mg
Kids: 0.5 mg (1 - 3 yrs) to 0.9 mg (9 - 13 yrs)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Aids normal brain function and maintains healthy nervous system. Beef, Chicken, Tuna, Liver, Peanut Butter, Barley, Rice Bran, Wheat Bran, Rice Men: 19.3 mg
Women: 14.0 mg
Kids: 15.0 mg
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) Regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and makes fatty acids and cholesterol. Egg Yolk, Legumes, Brewer's Yeast, Whole Grains, Organ Meats Men: 2.5 mg
Women: 2.5 mg
Kids: 2 - 4 mg
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Regulates the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates. Aids healthy nervous system function, and in the production of red blood cells. Bananas, Brewer's Yeast, Wheat Bran, Mackerel, Walnuts, Brown Rice, Sunflower Seeds, Liver, Salmon, Tuna, Meat Men: 1.8 mg
Women: 1.5 mg
Kids: 0.6 mg - 0.13 mg
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Essential for DNA synthesis. Aids healthy nervous system function, and helps in production of red blood cells. Mussels, Oyster, Oily Fish, Crab, Beef, Liver, Offal, Egg Men: 2 mcg
Women: 2 mcg
Kids: 0.9 mg - 2.4 mcg
Folate Combined with vitamin B12, it protects and develops the nervous system, and helps in the production of RNA and DNA. It produces red blood cells for babies in the uterus. Lentils, Chickpeas, Kidney Beans, Green Leafy Vegetables, Nuts, Oat Bran, Liver, Brewer's Yeast Men: 400 mcg
Women: 400 mcg
Kids: 150 mcg - 300 mcg
Vitamin C Helps in collagen production. Also important for healthy gums, bones, cartilage, and blood vessels. Strengthens immune system, aids in tissue repair, and in absorbing iron for the body. Citrus Fruits, Guava, Papaya, Kiwi, Green Leafy Vegetables, Broccoli, Capsicum, Red Chillies Men: 40 mg
Women: 30 mg
Kids: 15 mg - 45 mg
Vitamin D Essential to absorb calcium and phosphorus to promote healthy bones and teeth. Dairy, Herrings, Tuna, Fish Oils, Egg Yolk, Sunflower Seeds, Sardines, Sunlight Men: 5 mg
Women: 5 mg
Kids: 5 mg
Vitamin E Contains antioxidant properties. Helps in healing of the skin and prevents scarring. It keeps the red blood cells healthy, and protects cell membranes. Safflower Oil, Peanut Oil, Peanut Butter, Sunflower Seed Oil, Sunflower Seeds, Almonds, Olive Oil Men: 10 mg
Women: 10 mg
Kids: 6 mg - 11 mg
Vitamin K Enables blood clotting in case of excessive bleeding. Wheat Bran, Milk, Liver, Green Leafy Vegetables Men: 80 mcg
Women: 80 mcg
Kids: 30 mcg - 40 mcg

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble (they dissolve in fat and can be stored in the body), while vitamins B and C are water soluble (any excess that is not used by the body is excreted in the process of urination).

Minerals Chart

Minerals Health Benefits Mineral Source Recommended Daily Intake
Calcium Important for strong bones and teeth. Helps in blood clotting, regulating blood pressure and enzyme production. Dairy, Tofu, Fortified Soy Milk, Sardines consumed with Bones Men: 800 - 1000 mg
Women: 800 - 1000 mg
Kids: 500 mg (1 - 3 yrs) - 1300 mg (9 - 13 yrs)
Iron Important component of hemoglobin, enabling red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. Fortified Cereals, Spinach and other Green Leafy Vegetables, Red Meat, Dried Fruits Men: 6 mg
Women: 6 mg
Kids: 7 mg - 15mg
Magnesium Works with sodium and phosphorus to enable healthy muscle and nerve function. Regulates calcium levels in the body, and helps it to maintain the bone structure. Yogurt, Eggs, Artichoke, Okra, Dates, Rolled Oats, Wheat Germ, Nuts, Seeds, Wheat Bran Men: 2.0 - 5.0 mg
Women: 2.0 - 5.0 mg
Kids: 1.0 - 3.0 mg
Potassium In combination with sodium, regulates the fluid levels in the body, blood pressure, heartbeat and nerve impulses. Spinach, Potato, Sweet Potato, Mango, Grapes, Banana, Litchi, Watermelon, Dates, Grapefruit, Bamboo Shoots, French Beans, Pumpkin, Beef, Milk, Pork, Salmon, Chicken, Sardines, Yogurt Men: 2000 mg
Women: 2000 mg
Kids: 3000 mg (1 - 3 yrs) - 4500 mg (9 - 13 yrs)
Sodium Along with Potassium, regulates fluid and alkali levels in the body. Also enables healthy nerve and muscle function. Table Salt, Seafood, Cheese, Eggs, Beetroot, Artichokes, Beef, Yogurt, Soy Milk Men: 500 mg
Women: 500 mg
Kids/Infants: 120 mg
Phosphorus Helps in teeth and bone building and maintenance. Also enables healthy muscle and nerve function, and allows for energy release. Dairy, Fish, Meat, Nuts, Seeds, Wheat Bran Men: 1200 mg
Women: 800 - 1200 mg
Zinc Strengthens immunity and the healing process. Useful for healthy skin, nails, eyes, growth and sexual development, DNA and protein synthesis, and enzyme activity. Avocado, Dates, Pomegranate, Raspberries, Asparagus, Corn, Peas, Potatoes, Okra, Lima Beans, Cashews, Oats, Rye, Wheat, Beef, Lamb, Turkey, Pork Men: 15 mg
Women: 12 mg
Kids: 10 - 15 mg
Copper Essential for healthy function of red blood cells and brain. Allows connective tissue synthesis. Seafood, Sesame Seeds, Liver, Nuts Men:1.5 - 3.0 mg
Women: 1.5 - 3.0 mg
Kids: 0.5 - 1.0 mg
Iodine Important for thyroid hormone regulation. Promotes growth and protein synthesis. Seafood, Iodized Salt Men: 150 mcg
Women: 150 mcg
Kids: 70 - 150 mcg

While calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, and sodium are the major minerals required, the remaining minerals such as zinc, copper, iodine, and phosphorus are known as trace minerals, required in lesser amounts on a daily basis. Nevertheless, these are extremely important.

This chart of vitamins and minerals has clearly stated the necessity of these nutrients for a healthy life. Though several plants and animals are abundant in these nutrients, sometimes it is essential to take nutritional supplements to meet the daily requirements. However, do so only under the guidance of a physician, as an overdose of any nutrient can be as dangerous as the deficiency. Include these vitamins and minerals, as a part of a balanced diet, combined with proper exercise, and you will be able to reap all their benefits in a healthy manner.

Disclaimer: This Buzzle article is for informative purposes only and does not, in any way, intend to replace the advice of a medical expert.