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Nonverbal communication - okay symbol
While we usually associate Charles Darwin with his theory of evolution, very few people know that he was the first person to conduct research on nonverbal communication; the findings of which he published in his book, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
Nonverbal communication is the process of communicating by sending and receiving non-verbal messages by means of gestures, body language, or facial expressions. In other words, it is about communicating, i.e., sending and receiving messages, without using words. Scientific research on this type of communication (and its effects) has identified various techniques that come into play in course of such communication. These include facial expressions, gestures, posture, and even our appearance.

It may come as a surprise to you, but a considerable part of our communication is nonverbal; about 80 percent according to some sources. Even though we often concentrate on words when we are in conversation with someone, our conclusions are also derived from his actions; the way the person talks, whether he maintains eye contact or not, the manner in which he holds his hands, and so on. Nonverbal communication most often occurs through our sensory systems: sight, sound, smell, touch, or taste.
Different Forms of Nonverbal Communication
Facial Expressions
Facial Expressions
Facial expressions play a crucial role in nonverbal communication. Just a smile or frown can speak thousands of words. They depict happiness, sadness, fear, anger, confusion, and various other emotions. Being able to read facial expressions can give us insights into the thoughts and feelings of other people. More importantly, they are the same throughout the world, and thus, turn out to be very helpful when it comes to language barriers.
Eye Contact
Eye Contact
Eye contact or gaze can also be an effective tool of nonverbal communication. It is primarily used to gage the degree of attention or interest. While looking at something often indicates interest in it, staring may indicate interest or hostility. Similarly, evading eye contact usually indicates that the person is hiding something, or is disinterested. Studies have also revealed that the rate of blinking increases when we come across things we like.
Posture
Posture
The body language of a person can speak volumes about him. Nonverbal body language can help in conveying feelings and demonstrating attitude. An individual subconsciously leaning towards you while in conversation usually indicates sympathy and acceptance. Similarly, talking face to face can be a sign of confrontation. Other than the emotional state of the person at a particular moment, posture is also an indicator of his overall nature.
While a closed posture, wherein arms are crossed at chest or abdomen, indicates nervousness, disinterest, and hostility, open posture, wherein the head is raised and feet are spread, indicates confidence, interest, and friendliness.
Gestures
Gestures
Gestures are deliberate movements or signals made to convey something to another person. Most commonly used gestures are waving of hands, pointing fingers, clenched fist, salute, clapping, thumb up, facepalm, etc. There also exist some gestures which are attributed to a particular culture or community. While an American will signal three using his index finger, middle finger, and ring finger, a German will signal it using his thumb, index finger, and middle finger.
Haptic
Haptic
Communicating by touch is by far the most important among the various types of nonverbal communication. The six different types of touch are positive, playful, control, ritualistic, task-related, and unintentional; the last one being mostly perceived as meaningless. A mother's touch to a child in infancy and childhood is considered an important factor in the development of an individual. Touch also plays an important role in conveying emotions such as love.
Paralanguage
Paralanguage
Paralanguage is indeed vocal communication, but it's different from normal spoken language. A sigh and gasp are by far the best examples of the same. The tone, pitch, and softness/loudness of the voice are the prominent aspects of paralanguage. A strong tone indicates the confidence level, while a hesitant tone indicates lack of confidence or lack of interest. Similarly, sounds like 'uh-huh', 'aha' and 'ahem' also offer nonverbal cues to your behavior.
Proxemics
Proxemics
Proxemics is primarily based on the amount of personal space we need or maintain when we indulge in any sort of activity. This can be attributed to various factors including social norms, familiarity with the other person, and personal characteristics of an individual. It indicates the closeness between the two people. Roughly about 1.5 ft of space around an individual is considered his intimate space, 4 ft his personal , 12 ft his social space, and 25 ft is the public space.
Appearance
Appearance
Regardless of whether you are addressing a group of people or interacting with someone for the first time, your audience has already made some opinions about you based on your appearance. And if you fail them in this aspect, they may not even pay attention to what you have to say. When we say appearance, it includes your clothing as well as personal hygiene. Appearance has a crucial role to play in first impressions, and yet, it's one of the most neglected attributes of nonverbal communication.
It is difficult to fake nonverbal communication as there are numerous signals involved. Same is the case with the interpretation part. You are likely to miss out on nonverbal cues if you are not paying attention. On the other hand, by paying attention to these cues and sending across the right signals, you will be able to ensure that your interaction with the other person is smooth sailing.