Types of advertising appeals
Advertising intends to promote the sales of a product or service and also to inform the masses about its features. It is an effective means of communicating the value of a product or service with people at large. Advertising utilizes different media to reach out to the masses. It uses different types of appeals to connect to consumers spread across the globe. The various types of advertising appeals use different ways to highlight product features and draw attention of the masses.
Audio-visual Media Advertising
In this advertising technique, advertisers use audio and visual media to promote their products. It is the most widely used medium to influence the masses. Television and radio have always been used to grab mass appeal. TV commercials that come in between TV shows, commercials shown during movies and advertisements aired on radio are some examples of audio-visual advertising. This advertising appeal makes use of sound and/or display to attract audiences. The product has to be marketed in less time, especially in case of TV or radio commercials. So the product name needs to be repeated and the advertisement needs to be catchy.
Bandwagon advertising
This advertising appeal aims to persuade people to do a certain thing because many are doing it. It is a human tendency to do as the masses do. Bandwagon technique of advertising captures this to induce people to use a certain product or service.
8 out of every 10 women prefer using the xyz shampoo! or More than 80% of the dentists of our country are using the xyz toothpaste. Which toothpaste do you use? or The world agrees with abc... Do you? are some popular ways of tricking people to join the bandwagon. This advertising appeal makes use of statistics and surveys to back the statements made. The idea is to stress that something is being used by millions and hence you should also be using it.
Black and White Fallacy
Only two choices are presented before the audience, thus compelling them to buy the product being advertised. It's like saying, "you are either with us or with them", or "you are with us or against us". In this method of advertising, two opposite choices are given to the audience. They are compelled to choose one. Saying something like "the elite class uses xyz product" is a clever way of making people use xyz. They are made to believe that if they do not use the product, they are not elite.
Card Stacking
It involves doing a comparative study of two competing products. The facts in favor of the product are selected. They are put forth in comparison with those of a competing product to make the product being advertised appear better. In this strategy, only the positive points of a product are highlighted while the negative ones are excluded. Advertising the benefits of a skin lotion and not referring to the side effects it can have, is an example of card stacking.
Classified Advertising
This type of advertising makes use of newspapers and periodicals to make public appeals about a product or service to be advertised. Sponsors pay for advertisement messages which are published in newspapers or other print media. Usually, advertisers purchase newspaper space which determines the size of their advertisement. Words and graphics are used to gather mass appeal.
Corporate Advertising
It is an advertising appeal wherein corporate logos and company messages are publicized on a large scale. Hot air balloons are commonly used in advertising. Some companies propose to place their logos on booster rockets and space stations to achieve publicity. In this advertising appeal, improving public relations is the objective. Increasing good reputation of the company among its customers is the prime objective of corporate advertising while product promotion is secondary.
Covert Advertising
This is the practice of achieving indirect publicity of a product by advertising it through movies and TV shows. TV actors or characters in movies are shown using certain products. Covert advertising is an indirect way of advertising a product by featuring it in films and television shows. For example, the main character in a film is shown using a certain brand of shoes or a certain car, thus endorsing it indirectly. This advertising technique is also known as guerrilla advertising.
Demonizing the Enemy
Advertisers make the people with an opposing point of view appear unacceptable. People who think or feel in a certain way are made to appear among the disliked section of society. This form of advertising involves the idea of encouraging one idea by discouraging ideas that contradict it. It is like proving a theorem by disproving its inverse. This method can be used in times of war to arouse hatred for the enemy nation. It can be used in environmental or social awareness advertisements too.
Direct Order
When advertisers appeal the masses by showing them the steps to take, in order to opt for a particular product or service, they are said to be using direct order technique. This advertising appeal communicates the steps to choose a certain product or service and presents them to the audience in a simplified manner. With something so directly and plainly stated, one feels compelled to go for it.
This technique involves a purposeful dissemination of false information. In context of the military, this technique is used to mislead the enemy. It commonly includes forging of documents and spreading of rumors. In context of advertising, it can include slight fabrication of the truth to make it more impressive or to exaggerate it a little. In this technique, some true information is mixed with false information and presented to the audience in an appealing manner.
Email Advertising
This advertising appeal makes use of emails to advertise products. Advertisements are sent to potential customers through emails. In this form of advertising, emails are sent with the purpose of improving customer relations or increasing the customer base. Emails contain advertisements or messages intended for product promotion.
Emotional Words
This advertising appeal makes use of positive words to generate positive feelings about a certain product in the minds of people. Advertisers often use words like 'luxury', 'comfort' and 'satisfaction' to create a positive vibe among the masses and attract them towards the product being advertised. Positive words can create a deep impact on people making them feel like using the product or service being advertised.
This advertising appeal uses events that can create euphoria. Announcing discount offers, offering holiday discounts and making luxury items available at affordable prices are often used to grab mass appeal. Sometimes, advertisers organize social events in which existing and potential customers are given the chance to participate. The product/service is marketed during the event or customers taking part are given special offers.
This advertising appeal makes use of the patriotic flavor to publicize a product. In case of flag-waving, advertisers try to justify certain actions on grounds of patriotism. Masses are persuaded to choose a particular product because doing so will be an expression of patriotism. In this method, advertisers associate buying or using their product with love for the country. They make people believe that in using a certain product, they are showing love for their country.
Glittering Generalities
Glittering generalities advertising
In this, advertisers make use of logical fallacies. They use appealing words without giving any concrete idea about what is being advertised. The words used have an emotional appeal and do not necessarily state anything logical or in a direct manner. Statements like "Our miracle lotion gives you a soft skin and..." or "Our magical drink helps you lose weight in..." are examples of glittering generalities. They use words like 'magical' and 'miracle' to emphasize how good the products are.
Half Truth
In this advertising appeal, advertisers use deceptive statements to publicize their product. They often use double-meaning words or statements to convey their message. What's partially true, or true in certain cases, is presented. Thus, the message conveyed through the advertisement is neither completely true nor entirely false. In some cases, it is worded in such a way that it can be interpreted in more than one ways.
Humor Appeal
This advertising appeal uses humor as a tool to achieve product promotion. Cartooning, joking, mocking, or satire are the commonly used elements of humor appeal. The funny way in which a product is advertised attracts customers. Sometimes, people remember the joke or satire associated with the product, which makes them attracted to it. The message is conveyed in a very light-hearted or funny manner. This style of advertising appeals to the masses and product sales are boosted.
Interactive Advertising
It makes use of interactive media. Advertisers hold exhibitions or trade-shows and offer rewards in the form of discounts or free gifts to increase the sales. Distribution of free samples of a newly launched product and publicity of a product through interactive means are some examples of interactive advertising. Contests intended to promote products and offers of free products and freebies are forms of interactive advertising.
Internet Advertising
It is a relatively recent form of advertising. Internet has become one of the most influential media of the modern times. Websites attract thousands of users everyday and show them advertisements. Sponsors pay for posting their advertisements on the page. The website owner gets paid for ad clicks. You must have come across advertisements on search engine result pages, on blogs, in forums, in emails. They are commonly used ways of advertising online.
With an intent to increase or diminish the perceived quality of a product, advertisers use labeling or categorization. Categorizing a product under a group of associated entities makes it appealing or unappealing to the masses.
This advertising appeal makes use of direct or indirect attack on the products in competition with the product being advertised. Direct name-calling involves making a direct attack on the opponent while indirect name-calling makes use of sarcasm to demean products of competitors.
Outdoor Advertising
Outdoor advertising is a popular advertising appeal that uses different tools to attract the customers outdoors. Billboards, kiosks and tradeshows are some of the commonly used means of outdoor advertising. Fairs, exhibitions and billboards that draw attention of the passersby are often used in outdoor advertising.
Performance-based Advertising
In the performance-based advertising appeal, advertisers pay only for the results. The advertising agency takes complete risk and hence ensures that the advertisement is pitched well.
Plain Folks
This advertising appeal aims at attracting the masses by using common people to advertise a product. Bombastic words may not always appeal to common folks. They can rather be attracted by communicating with them in their language. The use of homey words, as they are called, and purposeful errors while speaking to give a natural feel to the speech, are characteristic to this advertising appeal.
Print Media Advertising
The print media is one of the most effective means of advertising. Many advertising appeals make use of the print media to reach out to the masses. Media like newspapers, brochures, manuals and magazines are used for publicizing products.
Public Service Advertising
This advertising technique is used to convey socially relevant messages to the masses. Social messages on issues like poverty, inequality, AIDS awareness and environmental issues such as global warming, pollution and deforestation are conveyed by means of appeals to the public through public service advertising.
Quotes Out of Context
This advertising appeal makes use of popular quotes. Advertisers using this advertising appeal alter widely known quotes to change their meaning. This technique is used in political documentaries.
Relationship Marketing
This form of advertising focuses on retention of customers and customer satisfaction. Advertisers appeal to target audiences with information that suits their requirements and interests.
This advertising appeal uses the technique of repeating the product name several times during an advertisement. Jingles are often used in this advertising technique to make the product name linger in the minds of the masses. With repetition, advertisers can bombard their message on the masses so that the product being advertised is remembered.
Romance Appeal
A man is shown using a particular cologne after which women are attracted to him. A girl is shown using a particular skin cream and then boys are shown flocking to her. This is romance appeal. It uses the opposite sex attraction element to grab attention. Masses are made to believe that on using a certain product, they will be perceived as more sexy and attractive. This advertising works especially well with teenagers as they easily believe what the advertisements say.
Scientific Evidence
This technique attempts to attract masses to use the advertised product, by providing them with survey results. The advertisers often use statistical evidences and market surveys to publicize their product. Research or statistical data supporting the advertisement, makes it appear more authentic. People tend to trust the advertisement because it is backed by surveys.
This advertising appeal makes use of shocking images or scenes to advertise a product. The name is derived from the combination of 'shocking' and 'advertising'. Provocative images and use of controversy to grab attention are examples of shock advertising. On the other hand, showing scary images illustrating the ill-effects of smoking on health, seeing which one would begin to hate the habit is also an example of shockvertising.
Slogans, as we all know, are striking phrases used to convey important information about a product to be advertised. Slogans make a message more interesting. People remember the slogans and thereby the products they endorsed. There are so many famous advertising slogans that we still remember and associate the products with them.
Snob Appeal
Snob appeal advertising
Snob appeal is an exact reverse of the bandwagon technique. In this advertising appeal, people are induced to buy a certain product so that they can stand out from the crowd. It is often indicated that buying that product will make them look different from the rest. It is indicated that the product is not affordable for common people. A sense of exclusivity is attached to the products.
A stereotype is a popular belief about a certain thing/person. This advertising appeal is also known as name-calling or labeling and attempts to categorize the advertised object under a certain class of entities. Depicting women with a fair skin tone as attractive or showing an obese teenager being bullied in school are common examples of stereotypes. This form of advertising uses popular beliefs like these to promote a certain idea.
Subliminal Advertising
This advertising appeal makes use of subliminal messages, which are intended to be perceived subconsciously. Subliminal signals go undetected by the human eye. However, they are perceived at a subconscious level. Subliminal appeal makes use of hidden messages and optical illusions.
Surrogate Advertising
In cases where advertising of a particular product is made illegal, product companies come up with other products with the same brand name. Advertising the legal products with the same brand name reminds the audience of their legally banned products as well.
People relate to their favorite personalities from the glamor industry. They are ready to follow what people from the glamor world do. They want to be like the celebrity they are fans of. Testimonials make use of this human tendency. Celebrities are used as ambassadors. They are shown using the product and recommending its use. People fall for these products just because they see someone famous endorsing them.
This advertising appeal is implemented in two ways. In positive transfer, a product is made to associate with a respectable and popular person. However, in case of negative transfer, advertisers state an analogy between a product and a disliked or notorious person. For example, saying something like "Even the President uses this" is positive transfer. Using a certain corrupt politician's name in saying that he uses a certain product is an example of negative transfer.
Unstated Assumption
When the idea behind the product or service being advertised is repeatedly implied, it is known as unstated assumption. In case of using this advertising appeal, the advertisers do not convey an idea explicitly. They rather imply their ideas in indirect ways.
Viral Advertising
It can take the form of word-of-mouth publicity or Internet advertising. The aim of the advertiser is to market the product on a very large scale. This advertising appeal intends to achieve speedy publicity of a product. The speed with which the message spreads is comparable to the spread of a disease-causing virus. And hence the name viral advertising.
Word-of-mouth Advertising
It can turn out to be a very effective advertising appeal. It can achieve success to an extent where a brand is equated to a common noun. Vaseline can be sited as an excellent example of word-of-mouth publicity, where the company name, 'Vaseline' became synonymous with the product name, 'petroleum jelly'. Or Xerox a trademark came to be used as a synonym of 'duplicate'.
Youth Appeals
With the increasing population in this section of society youth appeals have assumed great importance. Youngsters are also the most vulnerable to external influences. So advertisers specifically target this group. Youth appeals include television advertisements and programs to promote trendy items. Flashy words and catchy messages are used to make the product look 'cool'. Teenagers fall for such advertisements quite easily, which is why youth appeals are almost always successful.
This was an overview of the different advertising appeals that advertisers around the world use with the purpose of marketing their products and services. You might want to know about the different types of advertising as well. Many of the popularly used products of today have gained popularity thanks to the advertising techniques that were implemented for their publicity. The advertising appeal that a company uses goes a long way to determine the success or failure of its product. So appeals should be chosen wisely.