Iron and brick were used by Charles Bage for the very first time in 1796, for the construction of his mill. These materials made the mills sturdier and stronger and soon, newer innovations, like the beam, followed. The very first skyscraper made entirely of steel was built in Chicago in 1890. From then on, there was no looking back.
✦ All the elements must be at right angles with each other.
✦ All ornaments, decoration, and color must be excluded, as they are unnecessary details.
✦ Materials must be displayed in their original form without altering their appearance; for example, not painting the surfaces.
✦ Prominence of vertical and horizontal lines.
✦ Using industry-made materials.
✦ Economical use of materials.
The modernist movement lasted until the '50s, after which the era of postmodernism began. It criticized the orthodox approach of modernism and challenged it greatly. Abstract, colorful, and decorative are just a few words to describe the structures that it brought in its wake.
Postmodern buildings were called the 'gray' of architecture, something out of the box, not conformed to a set standard of principles. Although postmodern architecture emerged from the modern form, it goes against the very core of modernism. It uses the same forms, details, and shapes, but displays them differently.
Apart from being pleasing to the eye of a viewer, postmodern buildings ensure sustainability, use good-quality materials, and are fully functional and livable. But appearances cannot be ignored here. These buildings are a visual treat; they shock, surprise, delight, and they always have something to say. In comparison to the plain, drab structures of the modernist movement, these buildings have color, decorations, ornaments, and vibrancy. The color wheel law is not followed here, and unusual combinations of colors are often used.
glass elevators that were new for their time in 1986. It is the creation of the architect, Richard Rogers.