Mathematics or math is considered to be the language of science, vital to understanding and explaining science behind natural occurrences and phenomena. It also happens to be one of the most dreaded subjects of most students the world over. Utter the word mathematics and even grown ups are known to shudder at the mere mention of it! We shall not delve into the reasons for this, but the variety of symbols used in equations also happen to add to the dread. Each branch of mathematics has its own special symbols that represent a particular concept. Thus, it is necessary for you to at least have a ready reference list of these conventions so that you don't mistake one for the other.
Did You Know?The first mathematical symbols to be used were ciphers. They were introduced even before the written language was introduced.
We, at Buzzle, have put forth a consolidated list of all the symbols used in various branches of mathematics. So, the next time you try to solve any math problem, you will at least know what the notations stand for!
Linear Algebra Symbols
Probability & Statistics Symbols
Set Theory Symbols
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It signifies addition of values.
It symbolizes subtraction of values.
It signifies multiplication of values.
It denotes division of values.
It signifies two sides are equal.
It denotes two sides are unequal.
It shows one value is greater than the other.
It implies one value is less than the other.
It symbolizes one value is greater than or equal to the other.
It indicates one value is less than or equal to the other.
It denotes, the value can be both plus and minus.
It signifies finding the remainder of division of two numbers.
It indicates calculation of the equation inside it should be carried out first.
It implies calculation of the equation inside it should be carried out first.
It signifies the number of times the number is used in multiplication.
It symbolizes the value that can be multiplied by itself to give the original number.
It gives the value that can be multiplied by itself three times to give the original number.
It is the value that can be multiplied by itself four times to give the original number.
It shows the value that can be multiplied by itself n times to give the original number.
It signifies ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.
It symbolizes number of parts per thousand.
It indicates number of parts per million.
It signifies number of parts per billion.
It symbolizes number of parts per trillion.
It indicates the figure formed by two rays.
It signifies the angle whose value is known.
It symbolizes the angle between two intersecting arcs of a sphere.
It indicates the angle that bisects the angle formed by two straight lines.
It indicates the measurement of plane angle representing one full rotation.
It gives the angular measurement equal to 1/60 of one degree.
It signifies the angular measurement equal to 1/60 of one arcminute.
It shows the straight line with negligible width and thickness.
It signifies the part of line with definite start and endpoints.
It indicates the line with start point but no endpoint.
It signifies the part of circumference of circle or a curve.
It symbolizes lines that are at right angles to each other.
It indicates the lines that are equidistant from each other.
It symbolizes the objects with similar geometric shape and size.
It signifies objects with similar shape but not similar size.
It indicates polygon with three vertices and three line segments as edges.
It symbolizes the distance between the points x and y.
It gives the ratio between circumference and diameter of a circle.
It signifies the unit of angle measurement.
It symbolizes the unit of plane angle measurement and is equal to 1/400 of 1 turn (360 deg).
It signifies an unknown value.
It indicates variables having same or identical value.
It indicates variables that are equal by definition.
It signifies changes in variables that are always related to each other, using a constant.
It signifies variables that are weakly similar to each other.
It symbolizes variables that are approximately equal to each other.
It indicates a variable without any limit.
It signifies the product of all integers less than or equal to n.
It symbolizes one variable is much less than the other.
It indicates one variable is much greater than the other.
It refers rounding the variable value to lower integer.
It indicates rounding the variable value to higher integer.
It gives a non-negative value of x, ignoring its sign.
It defines one variable in relation to the other.
It combines functions such that output from function becomes input for the other function.
It gives product of all values in the specified range.
It symbolizes interval has no limits, i.e., without any end points.
It gives the interval with specified end points.
It refers to change or difference in values.
It gives the nature of roots for a quadratic equation.
It refers to summation of all values in the specified range.
It signifies summation of values in two ranges.
Its value is equal to 2.718281828...
The constant is equal to 0.527721566...
It indicates ratio of two variables should be equal to the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two variables.
It signifies multiplying magnitudes of vectors and cosine of angle between them.
It refers to multiplying magnitudes of vectors and sin of angle between them.
It indicates rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns.
It gives the value associated with a square matrix.
It assigns positive length (size) to each non-zero vector in space.
It symbolizes the matrix whose multiplication with the original matrix is an identical matrix.
It refers to the matrix formed by replacing rows of the given matrix with columns and vice versa.
It signifies matrix with complex entries where the i-th row and j-th column is equal to complex conjugate of j-th row and i-th column.
It indicates the number of non-zero rows (or columns) in the reduced matrix.
It gives the number of rows and columns of the matrix, written as rows x columns.
It signifies the likeliness of the occurrence of the event A.
Integral of function of a continuous random variable gives the probability that the value of the variable lies in the given interval.
It denotes the probability of occurrence of events A and B.
It denotes the probability of occurrence of events A or B.
It denotes the probability of occurrence of event A when event B has occurred.
It denotes the probability that random variable X takes a values less than or equal to x.
It denotes the arithmetic mean of the population while considering each member of the population.
It denotes the expected value of random variable X.
It denotes the expected value of random variable X when the variable Y is given.
It expresses the spread of numbers of a given set.
It denotes the variation from the existing average value.
It indicates the number of standard deviations a variable is from the mean.
It denotes the middle value of random variable X.
It measures how much two random variables, X and Y, change together.
It denotes the statistical relationship between two random variables, X and Y.
It signifies the most frequently occurring value in the given set.
It signifies the arithmetic mean between the maximum and minimum value of the set.
It denotes the average of all the values of a given set.
It denotes the 25th percentile of the given set data.
It denotes the median of the given set.
It denotes the 75th percentile of the given set data.
It signifies the average of the given set data, i.e., the sum of the set data divided by number of entries in the set.
It indicates the variance of the data set in the chosen sample size.
It indicates the standard deviation of the data set in the chosen sample size.
It denotes the theoretical distribution of number of successes in a finite data set with constant probability of successes.
It indicates the distribution of random variable X.
It indicates the probability of an observation falling between two real numbers.
It indicates the probability that each value in the given data set has equal interval length in the given range from a to b.
It signifies probability distribution which describes time between continuously occurring events at a constant average rate.
It denotes the continuous two-parameter distribution from which chi-square and exponential distributions are derived.
It signifies the distribution of sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variable.
It denotes probability distribution function, which is a ratio of two independent random variables, each of which has a chi-square distribution and is divided by number of degrees of freedom (k).
It denotes the discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in n number of experiments, where each success is yielded by probability p.
It indicates the probability of a given number occurring in a fixed time interval and/or space, if the events occur with a given average rate.
It signifies the negative binomial distribution which is used to find out the number of failures before single success.
It is used to calculate random selection of a variable without repetition.
It signifies the possible arrangement of things in a particular order.
It indicates the possible arrangement of things without any particular order.
It signifies the collection of distant elements.
It indicates objects that belong to both sets, A and B.
It refers to objects that belong to either set A or set B.
It signifies few elements in the subset A are similar to the elements in set.
It indicates that subset A has fewer elements than the set B.
It signifies that A is not a subset of the set B.
It symbolizes that set A has more or equal elements than set B.
It indicates that set A has more elements than set B.
It signifies that sets A and B have same elements.
It represents objects that do not belong to set A.
It refers to objects that belong to set A but not to set B.
It indicates objects that belong to both sets A and B but not to their intersection.
It symbolizes that a is an element of set A.
It indicates that x is not an element of set A.
It represents collection of elements of a set in a particular order.
It gives the product of two sets.
It indicates infinite cardinality (number of elements of a set) of natural numbers set.
It signifies cardinality (number of elements of a set) of countable ordinal (well ordered) numbers set.
It refers to set having no elements.
It represents set having all possible values.
It refers to set of whole/natural numbers with zero.
It indicates set of integer numbers.
It refers to set of real numbers.
It represents set of complex numbers.
It signifies the number of elements in set A.
It signifies logical conjunction where two true operands can only produce a true value.
It signifies logical disjunction where two false operands produce a false value.
It indicates negation of the given value.
It denotes exclusive disjunction where either of the operands should be true to return a true value.
It indicates material implication where true value is returned only if either of the operand is true or false.
It denotes material equivalence where true value is returned only when both operands are true or false.
It indicates existential quantification where function of the operand is true only for one value of operand.
It indicates existential quantification where function of the operand is true only for one value of operand.
It is placed before a logical sequence indicating conclusion of the required operation.
It is placed before a logical sequence indicating assumption or reason.
It signifies universal quantification where function of the operand is true for all values of the operand.
It denotes the value that function approaches when input approaches specified value.
It represents a very small number nearing zero.
It indicates change in the function when the input values change.
It returns a value which is the derivative of the derivative of the given function.
It returns a value which is calculated by deriving the given function for n times.
It indicates change in the function with respect to change in time.
It denotes the value that is obtained by calculating derivative with respect to one variable, while other variables are constant.
It refers to antiderivative, and is the signed area of a region which is bounded by graph (definite integral).
It denotes the integration of a function of two variables.
It denotes the integration of a function of three variables.
It denotes the integral of a function evaluated along a curve, i.e., with respect to arc length.
It indicates the square root of -1.
It indicates the pair of complex numbers with same real part and imaginary part with equal magnitude but opposite signs.
It denotes the gradient and vector derivatives.
It indicates quantity with magnitude and direction.
It signifies a vector with magnitude 1.
It defines the integral of product of two functions when one function is reversed and shifted.
It is defined as the limit of a class of delta sequences.
It indicates the linear operator of function f which transforms f(t) to F(s), with s being the complex argument
It signifies the transformation of signals into time and frequency domains, i.e., breaks them into sines and cosines.