The Hindu scriptures are vast and very deep in meaning, hence, there are so many commentaries by many scholars. There are infinite manifestations of the supreme being according to Vedic scriptures, and the numbers 33 million or 330 million are just the way of signifying that the one god has infinite manifestations. All these avatars have specific qualities, powers, and roles in the working of the universe. The reason people have the misconception that the Hindu religion is polytheistic, is because of the sheer number of gods and demigods narrated in the Vedic scriptures. But this is not so. In the end, the bottom line of every scripture states that the final goal of spirituality is that of realization of the One God. To get there, deity worship may be required and personalize may be needed. This is the reason why there are so many gods with so many qualities. One person may take a liking to one quality of a god and then worship him/her. This way, he takes the first step of realization of the Supreme.
In Hinduism there are three main sects - Shaivism, Vaishnavism, and Shaktism. Shaivism is the worship of Shiva, Vaishnavism refers to the worship of Vishnu, and Shaktism is the worship of Shakti or Devi. Smartism is a modern tradition that believes in the worship of more than one Gods, including Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, Ganesha, and Surya.
Agni - God of fire
Vayu - God of wind. The Ramayana states that when Vayu withdrew with sadness, creatures started to die on earth.
Prithvi - She is mother earth and the carrier of all beings.
Surya - The Sun god. He is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by seven horses.
Dyaus - The Sky god
Antariksha (Aha) - Space
Nakshatra - It is the constellation of gods that appear as stars.
Soma - The Moon god. He is depicted as beautiful and proud.
Matsya - This avatar of Vishnu is in form of a fish. He comes to save Manu, the first man, from an apocalyptic flood.
Kurma - A tortoise avatar, Vishnu supports the celestial churning of the celestial milk to extract amrit, or the drink of immortality.
Varaha - Vishnu takes the avatar of a boar to defeat a horrible demon named Hiranyaksha. Their fight lasted a thousand years.
Narasimha - Is half-man and half-lion. Takes this terrible avatar to kill the demon father of his ardent worshiper.
Vamana - Appeared as a short Brahmin. He restored Indra's rule on the three worlds.
Parashuram - Popularly depicted with an ax that he is believed to have received from Shiva. He is one of the seven Chiranjivis (immortals) in Hinduism. He is believed to have fought against the seas to save lands and wiped out Kshatriyas from the earth.
Rama - He is known to be the most ideal man to have ever lived. He is known as Maryada Purushottama (Lord of Self-Control). He is worshiped for his righteousness and valor. He was the main character of the epic Ramayana.
Krishna - He is known to be the most complete avatar of lord Vishnu. By many sects in Hinduism, he is considered as the Supreme God. Bhagavad Gita, the holy book of Hindus comprises his conversation with Arjuna. This narrative is a part of Mahabharata, in which Krishna provides Arjuna with guidance and counseling about his duty on the battlefield.
Buddha - Founder of Buddhism who preached ahimsa. Many Hindu scriptures include him in the 10 avatars of Vishnu.
Kalki - Final incarnation of Vishnu and the bringer of Armageddon, where he is prophesied to destroy all the unrighteous people in the world at the end of kali yuga.
Surya - He is Sun god and the chief of Adityas. The recital of Gayatri Mantra is known to please him.
Chandra - Symbolizing the Moon, he is also known as Soma.
Mangala - Also known as Bhauma, he is considered as the son of Bhumi or Earth. He is the god of war.
Budha - Believed to be the son of Chandra and Tara, he is the god of merchandise.
Guru - Also known by the name Brihaspati, he is believed to be the guru of gods. He is the god of wisdom.
Shukra - He represents wealth, happiness, and reproduction.
Shani - A demi-god, son of Surya and Chhaya, he represents career and longevity.
Rahu - God of Ascending
Ketu - God of Descending
These were the main Hindu gods and goddesses, along with their powers, qualities, and avatars. Hope the article has intrigued you enough to read more about the wonderful religion of Hinduism.