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Greek Gods and their Roman Equivalents

The Greek and Roman pantheons can be quite easily compared, since the structures of the two pantheons is quite similar. Here is a handy comparison of Greek gods and their Roman counterparts.
Greek Gods and their Roman equivalents
Did You Know?
The king of gods in at least one other pantheon is also the god of sky and thunder―Indra, the king of gods in the Hindu pantheon. Thor, the prince of Asgard, is also the god of thunder.
The ancient Greek civilization was influential for centuries after its demise, and is responsible for many human traits in the modern world. It also conceptualized and recorded one of the first pantheons in human history. The Greek pantheon began with Uranus and Gaia, the personifications of the sky and mother Earth, respectively. This union led to the birth of Titans. Titans gave birth to the Olympian gods, including Zeus, the king of Olympian gods.

This pantheon was then adopted by the Romans when they captured and assimilated the Greek empire. This confluence of rich cultures produced some of the most long-lasting iconography. The Romans equated gods from their own tradition with the Hellenic gods, borrowing heavily from Greek traditions to embellish their own pantheon.

Here are the prominent Hellenic gods, along with their equivalent Roman deity.

Greek Name
Anglicized Roman Name
Domain

Helios
Sol
Personification of the Sun.

Zeus
Jupiter
God of sky and thunder, king of the gods.

Cronus
Saturn
God of harvesting and agriculture.

Ares
Mars
God of war.

Hermes
Mercury
God of trade, merchants, travelers.

Aphrodite
Venus
Goddess of sexual love, beauty, and sensuousness.

Ouranos
Caelus
God/Personification of the sky.

Poseidon
Neptune
God of the seas and horses.

Pluto/Hades
Pluto / Dispater
God of the underworld.

Gaia
Terra
Personification of Earth.

As you can see, the Roman names of these particular gods (except Uranus, which is the anglicized version of 'Ouranos') were assigned to the main celestial bodies in our solar system.

These are some more Greek gods, along with their Roman counterparts.

NOTE: The gods have been listed alphabetically according to the original Greek names.

Amphitrite
Salacia
Goddess of the oceans, consort of Poseidon/Neptune.

Ananke
Necessitas
Personification of destiny/fate.

Apollo
Apollo
God of light, healing, music, poetry, etc.

Artemis
Diana
Goddess of virginity, childbirth, hunting and wild animals. Artemis was the twin sister of Apollo.

Asclepius
Vejovis
God of medicine and healing. Asclepius was a son of Apollo. The modern symbol for medicine, the rod of Asclepius, is named after him.

Athena
Minerva
Goddess of wisdom, strategy, warfare, law and justice, arts, and civilization.

Atropos
Morta
Atropos was one of the Moirai, responsible for cutting the thread of one's lifespan. Accordingly, Morta was the goddess of death or mortality.

Boreas
Aquilo
God/personification of the north wind. Boreas, Eurus, Notus, and Zephyrus were the major Anemoi, the wind gods.

Chloris
Flora
Goddess of blossoms, and flowers (flora).

Clotho
Nona
One of the Moirai (Fates), responsible for spinning on a spindle the thread that determined a person's lifespan. Nona was the goddess of pregnancy.

Cybele, Rhea
Magna Mater
Great mother of gods.

Demeter
Ceres
Goddess of harvest and fertility of the Earth. The asteroid Ceres is named after her.

Dionysus
Bacchus/Liber
God of wine and uninhibited joy.

Enyo
Bellona
Goddess of war, sister and counterpart of Ares/Mars.

Eos
Aurora
Goddess of dawn.

Eris
Discordia
Goddess of discord and strife

Eros
Cupid
God of sexual love and lust.

Eurus
Vulturnus
Personification/god of the east wind.

Hebe
Juventas
Goddess of youth.

Hecate
Trivia
Goddess of crossroads and sorcery (necromancy).

Hephaestus
Vulcan
God of volcanoes, lava, smelters, and metalwork.

Hera
Juno
Goddess of marriages and family. Hera was the sister and wife of Zeus.

Hestia
Vesta
Goddess of hearths and civilization.

Hygieia
Salus
Personification of hygiene, sanitation, goddess of well-being.

Hypnos
Somnus
Personification of sleep.

Lachesis
Decima
One of the Moirai, responsible for measuring the thread that determined a person's lifespan. Decima is considered the goddess of childbirth.

Nike
Victoria
Goddess of victory.

Notus
Auster
God/personification of the south wind.

Nyx
Nox
Personification of the night.

Pan
Faunus, Silvanus
God of wilderness, sheep, and shepherds.

Pheme
Fama
Personification of fame and rumors.

Selene
Luna
Goddess of the Moon.

Thanatos
Mors
Personification of death. Thanatos was the half-brother of Hypnos.

Themis
Justitia
Personification of inherent natural laws.

Tyche
Fortuna
Goddess of good fortune, luck, and prosperity.

Zephyrus
Favonius
God/personification of the west wind.

This process of adopting and assimilating Greek deities into the Roman culture was called Interpretatio Graeca. The phrase literally means 'interpretation with reference to the Greeks'. The artwork depicting these deities is similar in most cases.
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Published: September 16, 2013
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