Did You Know?The king of gods in at least one other pantheon is also the god of sky and thunder―Indra, the king of gods in the Hindu pantheon. Thor, the prince of Asgard, is also the god of thunder.
The ancient Greek civilization was influential for centuries after its demise, and is responsible for many human traits in the modern world. It also conceptualized and recorded one of the first pantheons in human history. The Greek pantheon began with Uranus and Gaia, the personifications of the sky and mother Earth, respectively. This union led to the birth of Titans. Titans gave birth to the Olympian gods, including Zeus, the king of Olympian gods.
This pantheon was then adopted by the Romans when they captured and assimilated the Greek empire. This confluence of rich cultures produced some of the most long-lasting iconography. The Romans equated gods from their own tradition with the Hellenic gods, borrowing heavily from Greek traditions to embellish their own pantheon.
Here are the prominent Hellenic gods, along with their equivalent Roman deity.
Anglicized Roman Name
Personification of the Sun.
God of sky and thunder, king of the gods.
God of harvesting and agriculture.
God of trade, merchants, travelers.
Goddess of sexual love, beauty, and sensuousness.
God/Personification of the sky.
God of the seas and horses.
Pluto / Dispater
God of the underworld.
Personification of Earth.
As you can see, the Roman names of these particular gods (except Uranus, which is the anglicized version of 'Ouranos') were assigned to the main celestial bodies in our solar system.
These are some more Greek gods, along with their Roman counterparts.
NOTE: The gods have been listed alphabetically according to the original Greek names.
Goddess of the oceans, consort of Poseidon/Neptune.
Personification of destiny/fate.
God of light, healing, music, poetry, etc.
Goddess of virginity, childbirth, hunting and wild animals. Artemis was the twin sister of Apollo.
God of medicine and healing. Asclepius was a son of Apollo. The modern symbol for medicine, the rod of Asclepius, is named after him.
Goddess of wisdom, strategy, warfare, law and justice, arts, and civilization.
Atropos was one of the Moirai, responsible for cutting the thread of one's lifespan. Accordingly, Morta was the goddess of death or mortality.
God/personification of the north wind. Boreas, Eurus, Notus, and Zephyrus were the major Anemoi, the wind gods.
Goddess of blossoms, and flowers (flora).
One of the Moirai (Fates), responsible for spinning on a spindle the thread that determined a person's lifespan. Nona was the goddess of pregnancy.
Great mother of gods.
Goddess of harvest and fertility of the Earth. The asteroid Ceres is named after her.
God of wine and uninhibited joy.
Goddess of war, sister and counterpart of Ares/Mars.
Goddess of dawn.
Goddess of discord and strife
God of sexual love and lust.
Personification/god of the east wind.
Goddess of youth.
Goddess of crossroads and sorcery (necromancy).
God of volcanoes, lava, smelters, and metalwork.
Goddess of marriages and family. Hera was the sister and wife of Zeus.
Goddess of hearths and civilization.
Personification of hygiene, sanitation, goddess of well-being.
Personification of sleep.
One of the Moirai, responsible for measuring the thread that determined a person's lifespan. Decima is considered the goddess of childbirth.
Goddess of victory.
God/personification of the south wind.
Personification of the night.
God of wilderness, sheep, and shepherds.
Personification of fame and rumors.
Goddess of the Moon.
Personification of death. Thanatos was the half-brother of Hypnos.
Personification of inherent natural laws.
Goddess of good fortune, luck, and prosperity.
God/personification of the west wind.
This process of adopting and assimilating Greek deities into the Roman culture was called Interpretatio Graeca
. The phrase literally means 'interpretation with reference to the Greeks'. The artwork depicting these deities is similar in most cases.