'Don't keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone. Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods. You will be certain to find something you have never seen before...'―Alexander Graham Bell

Nuclear scientist Dr. Edward Teller has a small story that he narrates: "When Columbus took off, the intention of the exercise was to improve relations with China. That problem has not been solved till this day, but look at the by-products!"

A close reexamination of the historical growth of today's scientific code of belief or commonly accepted 'fundamental concepts' likewise reveals some surprising facts. Some glaring discrepancies in comparison to the claims of contemporary textbooks can be seen if the facts are studied effectively.

The Gravitational Constant

The acceleration of gravity, g, is constant, at any location. For instance, the weight of one kilogram near the surface of the Earth, where the acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/sec., every second, is 9.8 Newtons.

Dr. Erwin J. Saxl, a one-time student of Albert Einstein, proved in his experiments that the assumption of gravitational constant is incorrect and obsolete. Dr. Saxl was able to verify that gravity and electricity do, in fact, interact under dynamic conditions. In 1968, Dr. Saxl's claims were unexpectedly confirmed from another corner of the world by a dissertation from the Karl Marx University in Leipzig. Entitled (translated) "About the influence of electrostatic fields on the periods of gravitational pendulae," this thesis by Harald Fischer from Taucha DDR, (German Democratic Republic) is obtainable at the university library in Mainz, West Germany. Like a chain reaction, the fundamental definition for inertia enters the changing picture when they hear about the late French Nobel Prize winner in physics, Gabriel Lippmann (1908) and his assertion that an ordinary atom in the normal state has inertia only because of its electrical properties, more precisely a net positive charge effect; however small it may be.

They demonstrated the validity of the principle when they found that bodies in the charged state offered a greater resistance to acceleration than when they were uncharged, thus altering the inertial properties of these bodies. His experiments were quickly and conveniently 'forgotten', since they undermined the established scientific 'laws' involving mass and inertia. Prof. Hermann Oberth, the teacher of space scientist Dr. Wernher von Braun, stated in a confidential letter of November 5, 1970 to this author:

"I am inclined to believe, more and more, that inertia, gravity, and energy represent merely different sides of one and the same thing. Similar to the fact that one cannot well dissect my person and then claim that: This is the Professor, this is the Hermann, and this is the Oberth."

Returning to Dr. Saxl's work, this short excursion into strange territory could be concluded by repeating that the gravitational constant can apparently be altered and modified by electrical forces. Or to put it more bluntly: it appears now certain that the force of gravity can be altered, influenced, and even reversed by electrical forces.

If the gravitational constant holds true, then the weight of an object is proportional to its mass. However, while weight and mass are proportional to each other, it should be noted that they are different entities. Weight is the vertical force of gravity, mass is an inertial property. The mass of an object referred to in the law of gravitation is called gravitational mass, in contrast to inertial mass. Einstein used the seeming equality of the inertial and gravitational mass as a basis for the general theory of relativity.

The Speed of Light

Nothing can exceed the speed of light in vacuum, which is a constant 186,000 miles per second or 299,792 kilometers per second.

Danish astronomer Olaf Roemer announced the calculation of the speed of light to the Academy of Sciences in Paris in 1676. They had calculated the velocity as 227,000 km/sec, or 141,000 miles per second. In 1926, Prof. A.A. Michelson flashed light between mirrors on mountain peaks 22 miles apart and clocked the speed at 182,284 miles per second. To obtain a more accurate figure, they directed the construction of a tube a mile long at Pasadena, California so that the speed of light could be measured in a vacuum. After his death in May 1931, the task was carried on by his colleague scientists. In 1932, the light measurements showed such marked discrepancies with previous results to occasion a distress call to the U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey, whose surveyors repeatedly measured the length of the tube and found no error. Variations of 12 miles per second and more were recorded. The speed seems to vary with the season and also in a shorter cycle lasting about one weeks. Finally, the scientists ended by taking an average of all the readings, which was announced in 1934 as 186,271 miles per second.

The discovery of new particles in nuclear physics challenged Einstein's theories. In 1967, Prof. Gerald Feinberg, a theoretical physicist at Columbia University, New York, published his new theory concerning tachyons, a word derived from the Greek 'Tachyos' meaning quick. Feinberg supplied mathematical proof that these particles move infinitely rapidly, but become slower as they approach the speed of light.

On August 28, 1970, two British scientists, John Allen and Geoffrey Endean, announced their discovery of an electromagnetic field in which particles move at a speed of about twice that of light. According to these scientists, the characteristics of this particular E/M field alone "would prove erroneous Einstein's theory."

In 1974, Dr. Marcel Pages, doctor of nuclear engineering and medicine in France; a founder-member of C.I.R.G., an international research center for gravitation; created in Rome, Italy, in 1961, published his important book, 'Le Défi de L'anti-gravitation' (The Challenge of Antigravitation) which states calculated fields with speeds superior to the speed of light are possible. Few of Dr. Page's scientific articles in 'Revue Française D'Astronautique' have been translated by the NASA translation service for the benefit of NASA researchers.

The Special Theory of Relativity began by assuming the velocity of light in a vacuum to be a fundamental and unvarying constant (Einstein in 1905). The same theory postulates that the velocity of light is the ultimate speed limit. At that speed, mass would become infinite. Not so, claims Dr. J.H. Sutton of NASA, who is concerned with finding clues toward a better understanding of gravity. Einstein's equations only make it impossible to find energy to accelerate a particle of finite mass to a speed greater than that of light. A particle 'born' with a speed in excess of c (speed of light) is not prevented by relativity from continuing on its way!

1. 'Mystery of Variation in Speed of Light', in Popular Science Monthly, March 1934, p. 25 (USA)
2. Physical Review, 1967.